History of Indo-china dispute: Ladakh

Ladakh is famous for its beauty and hilly terrain. For the past several weeks, the area has been in the headlines for the Indo-China border dispute.Ladakh, which has recently become a Union Territory, has a different geographical structure. The hills here are part of the Himalayan mountain range. There are lakes, snow-capped mountains and narrow gorges.

It is difficult to understand the current dispute between India and China without understanding the terrain of the Himalayas.The year 2020 was the 70th year of India-China diplomatic relations. There were to be 70 events on this occasion in both the countries. But a clash between Indo-Chinese troops on the shores of Lake Pangong in eastern Ladakh on May 5 changed everything. The clash in Naku La sector of Sikkim on May 9 and then the clash in Galwan on June 15 made the atmosphere more tense.

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How did Tibet and Indian territory form?

Ladakh-Notes Nepal

The shore from which the waves of the Neo-Tethys Ocean hit millions of years ago is now called Tibet. At that time, the Indian plate was nowhere to be found.The Indian plate was born four to five million years ago and its collision with the Asian plate (present-day Tibet) was similar to other similar events.” Ladakh

What do the experts say about the sourness in India-China diplomatic relations after the completion of 70 years and the recent dispute?

Ladakh-Notes Nepal


The foundation of India-China diplomatic relations was laid on April 1, 1950, marking the 70th anniversary of this year. Both the countries had made a lot of preparations to celebrate on this special occasion. One event was planned to be held in India and the other in China, but one border clash after another has hampered these efforts to increase the partnership for a long time. Ladakh

There is tension on the border between India and China but this issue will be resolved through dialogue. The reality is that no country would want a conflict with China today. China is five times ahead of India in the economic field. In the military field, China is four times ahead of India .Ladakh

The whole story of border dispute between India – China is something like this.

Ladakh-Notes Nepal
Ladakh Police
  • Before the violent clash between the Indo-Chinese army in the Galwan valley, there was a dispute in Tawang, Arunachal in 1975, when 4 soldiers were martyred.
  • The two armies came face to face near the Sikkim border in 1967, when 80 Indian soldiers were killed and 400 Chinese soldiers were killed.
  • In the 1962 war, 1383 Indian soldiers were killed, 1696 were missing and 3968 were taken prisoner, 722 Chinese soldiers were killed .

The history of the dispute between India and China is like frozen water, on which only hope slips, not results. The reason – then the same border dispute, which is 4056 km long and it goes from west to east in the Himalayan range. Located at the highest altitude in the world. Where soldiers are stationed in the most difficult situations.Ladakh

Where in many places the temperature stays below zero throughout the year.It is also considered to be the largest border in the world, which has not been fully mapped. India considers the McMahon Line to be the de facto border, while China does not. There was also a war between India and China in 1962 over this line. . As far as China is concerned, the border is known as the Line of Actual Control (LAC).

What is the status of Galwan?

In 1962, China had attacked the Gorkha post here which lie in part of ladhak. That area is in Ladakh, Name- Galwan Valley. The Galwan Valley falls in the region of china .The People’s Liberation Army of China had sent a battalion in this region . There was army dispute with heavy firing and bombardment on this galvanic post. During this time 33 Indians were killed here.Ladakh

What were the major disputes between the two countries after 1962?

Ladakh-Notes Nepal

1967 – Clashes near Nathu La Pass
The conflict of 1967 started when India mapped the border by laying wires from Nathu La to Cebu La. Located at 14,200 feet, Nathu La Pass is on the Tibet-Sikkim border, passing through the old Gangtok-Yatung-Lhasa road. During the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, China asked India to evacuate Nathu La and Jelep La Passes.From then on, Nathu La became the center of controversy.This battle continued for many days.

1975 – China- India Dispute Tulung, Arunachal Pradesh

1987 – Clashes break out between the two countries in Tawang

2017- Armies remained face to face for 75 days in Doklama

Doklama is similar to the tri-junction of India, Bhutan and China. Doklama is a disputed mountainous area, which is claimed by both China and Bhutan. India supports Bhutan’s claim on Doklama.When China started road construction here in June, 2017, it was stopped by Indian troops. This is where the dispute between the two sides over Doklama started . The borders of the two countries remained face to face for more than 75 days, but there was no violence.Ladakh

What were the major diplomatic steps between India and China in 3 decades?

  1. Since 1993, talks have begun between the two countries on a number of bilateral agreements and protocols to maintain peace on the border. The foundation of relations with China in the 90s was laid in 1988 by the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China.

2. In 1993, the then Prime Minister of India PV Narasimha Rao visited China and during this time he signed the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility Agreement with the Chinese Premier Li Peng. The agreement was to restore peace on the LAC.

3. Another agreement was reached regarding the LAC, which was visited by Chinese President Jiang Zemin in 1996. The then Indian Prime Minister HD Deve Gowda had signed the agreement.


4. Manmohan Singh had signed three agreements with China in 2005, 2012 and 2013 to enhance talks on the border dispute. Then the present External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar used to be India’s Ambassador to China.

5.Modi called Jinping to Ahmedabad after becoming PM. Then in 2018 the Informal Summit with Jinping began in Wuhan. In this connection, the two leaders met in Mahabalipuram in 2019.Ladakh

Diplomatic steps between Modi-Jinping?

Modi has met Chinese President Xi Jinping 18 times. Apart from one-to-one meetings, these include separate meetings between the two leaders in other countries. Modi has visited China five times. This is the most frequent visit of a single Prime Minister to China in the last 70 years.


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