All the festivals and powers of Vedic Sanatan Dharma revolve around nature and the earth, the experimental significance of which is extremely scientific. Chhath festival is a ritual of the Sun God, the giant power that every human being sees from birth to death and the coexistence of human beings with the energy center Surya is associated with the cultural background of Chhath.
The role of the sun on this earth, including the rising sun in the morning, the light that penetrates through the corners of the windows, the sun that grows the plants, the sun that creates clouds, the sun that gives warmth, and the interdependent relationship between humans and the sun may not be explained.
With the conclusion of the festival, the whole Nepali land has been enchanted by the joyous atmosphere of Chhath festival. It is believed that the name of this festival has been changed to Chhath as it is celebrated on the 60th day. The Chhath festival, which is celebrated in the Terai region, is now becoming popular in the mountains, hills and the Terai.
Symbol of harmony and brotherhood, this festival is celebrated with great joy and rejoicing by giving milk to the ghats adorned on the banks of rivers, lakes or ponds, banana poles, the red rays of the rising and setting sun between the twinkling lights. It is customary to bring the offerings given by the neighbors such as banana snails, coconuts, bhogte and other fruits to the Chhath fasting person at Vratalu’s house. It is customary to take the fruits brought home in the morning on the last day of Chhath as an offering after seeing the rising sun.
Devotees have taken vows for the fulfillment of various aspirations for Chhath and accordingly the practice of offering prasadi on Chhath has continued. Chhath is a purely religious festival and does not include the practice of slaughtering animals or taking animal vows. On the first day of the four-day festival, Arba or 73 ghadasanhari khay 73 ghadas, on the second day The third day is called “Kharna”, the third day is called “Sanjia Arghya” Chhath because the third day of this festival starting from Kartik Shukla Chaturthi is Chhath i.e. Shashti and the last day is called “Vihaniya Arghya” Paran.
On the day of Araba, it is customary for the youth of the village to celebrate Chhath by cleaning the banks and roads of rivers or lakes or ponds, scraping the grass and purifying the water. In this way, while cleaning the pond in the Terai, banana pillars buried in the form of Dwarka are collected in Tihar and made into a kind of boat that is not submerged in water. Since the bananas are not submerged in the water, the water of the pond is cleaned by climbing on this boat and eating it with a stick.
On the third day, “Sanjhiya Ghat”, in the evening, the Vratals offer milk to the sun, which is half submerged in a river, lake or reservoir. And on the morning and evening of the fourth day, before the sun rises, it is customary to reach Chhath Ghat and end the fast by offering argha to the rising sun. The rest of the festival is lit up by the patkas, flowers and jhirjhire, while the bhajan kirtan and music of the sixth mother make the place unique. Thus, the Bhojpuri language has an important place and contribution in the traditional songs sung during Chhath Puja or sung collectively.
Those who fast on Chhath should take a bath, purify themselves and eat only one meal. Khir puri is cooked in one place of the house covered with cow dung and soil. Similarly, a place in the house is purified by sprinkling water and Ganga water on other rice. Vratalu worships by closing the room by placing khirpuri fruits on the banana leaves and distributing offerings after the puja is over. On the third day of Chhath, the yard of the house is covered and the Chhath is prepared by mixing ghee, sugarcane, sugar, coconut, cloves, sweet melons, chowda, snake and other spices and decorating the yard with special dishes like Thekuwa, rice flour and fruits.
Worship of Chhath requires ingredients like unkhu, banana plant, turmeric, ginger, coconut, barley, bhusuwa, thakuwa, fruits, vatasajanya sweets. In the evening, these food items are decorated with bamboo choya and taken to the banks of rivers, streams and lakes. In this way, it is customary for anyone to carry the chanti decorated with various offerings to the ghat with reverence.
The materials are taken to the shore of the well-decorated reservoir and placed in the water. The next morning, the same thing is done by dipping in the same reservoir and offering argha to the rising sun. Those who observe Chhath Brat should stop eating garlic and onions one month in advance.
Gangasagar of Janakpur, Dhanusagar, Bindabasini of Birgunj, Ranipokhari of Kathmandu, Kupandol Bagmati, Boksidaha and most of the reservoirs of Terai and Mid-Hill Vek have been specially decorated on the occasion of Chhath.
Along with Chhath, the Lavalaskars of the festival are muted for a few months, now they are busy cutting paddy, threshing and importing grain. The practice of threshing new rice husks is also prevalent in Chhath, so it is customary to offer new grains as Chhath prasadi.
In the Mahabharata, it is said that the immense wealth and power attained by Karna was all due to the effect of the Chhath fast, while it is also mentioned that Draupadi also took the Chhath fast.