Danuwar : Indigenous Inhabitants In Nepal with Mongolian Origin


Who are Danuwar

According to historical facts, the Danuwar, an indigenous tribe of Mongolian origin, was an organized caste that ruled in the Mid-Tarai during medieval Nepal (fourteenth century). Which is called Danuwar, Dunwar, Donwar, Dronwar. King Harsinghdev of Tirhutia was Danuwar. King Puraditya Singh of Banauli, who gave refuge to the Maithili poet Vidyapati, was also a Danuwar. From this context, it can be seen that this community has become a king.

Among the Adivasi / Janajatis listed by the Government of Nepal, Danuwar, which belongs to the group of the most marginalized Adivasi / Janajati, lives in 62 districts of Nepal including Terai, Inner Madhes and Hills. According to historians, this caste has been living in Nepal since the beginning of Nepal Mandal. While studying the history of the Danuwar caste, it is found that they are mentioned in the books related to Danuwar connected with the Simraungadh state government satasangahi. According to various documents, the Danuwars have been living in Nepal for over 2,000 years.


Among the documents found so far, the old record of the Danuwar caste is the red seal given to Siddha Bhagwant Nath by Prithvinarayan Shah in 1827 BS. This red seal mentions the Danuwar caste. According to the National Census 2068, the population of Danuwars is 84,115.

There are different opinions about the origin of the word Danuwar. According to some, Danuwar is derived from the word ‘Doniwar’ and ‘Dan’ is derived from the word ‘Don’. Similarly, some have mentioned him as a descendant of Donacharya, while others have mentioned him as Danuwar from the word Dalwar (combatant).

The language of the Danuwar caste is called ‘Danuwari’. Danuwari language is a language developed from Magadhi Prakrit language. The name of this language has been changed to Danuwari because it is spoken by Danuvars. In the Magadheli languages ​​of the Nepali class, Danuwaris are considered close. This language is spoken by the Danuvars living in the inner Madhes of Nepal from east to west and in the waves of the Mahabharata mountains.

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According to the National Census 2068, the number of Danuwari speakers in Nepal is 45,821. The Danuwari language is the language spoken by the Danuwar caste. It is mentioned in page number 631 of the Nepali Comprehensive Dictionary of Nepal State Intellectual Foundation, Kamaladi, Kathmandu.

Nepali Caste

Although the Danuwars have their own customs, rites, culture, language and customs, they are influenced by the communities close to their residence. The Danuwari language is found to have been influenced by the local community according to its geographical habitat. The Danuwars of the Terai are influenced by the Maithili language, while the Danuwars living in the hills are influenced by the hill language. The original form of Danuwari language can be found in Danuwars living in Sindhuli, Udaipur, Sarlahi, Siraha and Dhanusha districts. The Danuwari language, which was once the official language of the Tirhut region, began to be overshadowed by the Maithil Brahmins at that time due to Durbaria Rajgaj. That trend is still growing.

Danuwari language content is published twice a month on the New Nepal page of Gorkhapatra daily. This language is taught in primary level in Kamalakhoj area of ​​Sindhuli district.


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