Tharu live in 20 different districts of the Terai region of Nepal from East Jhapa to West Kanchanpur, especially in the Inner Madhes. This caste is the most populous caste among the indigenous tribes of Nepal. According to the census of 2068 BS, the population of this caste in Nepal is 17,37,470.This community has its own language, culture, way of life, customs, script and history. According to sociologist Dor Bahadur Bista, the name is derived from the fact that the they came from the southern Thar Desert. The area of the Terai inhabited by the them has been called Tharuwan or Tharuhat since time immemorial.
They have a distinctly different name, surname, language and civilization. Even though they are the same caste on the basis of name, there are linguistic and cultural differences. From Mechi to Mahakali, there are fifty surnames of them . Of these, the Tharu living in Morang district are called Khausiya (Kaushia) who live on the banks of Koshindi, Morangia. Similarly, other include Chitauniya, Lalpuria, Dangaura, Gachchhadar, Rana, Mahato, Vishwas, Sunada, Sardar, Mahantha, Vantha, Vantar, Bhajaura, Bhagat etc.
Similarly, Dahit, Kushumya, Satgaonwa, Chamar, Rana, Dangaura, Katharia, Kariya Magharia, etc. are in the Thar from Dang to West Kanchanpur.
Tharuare a caste rich in cultural heritage. Their narrative tradition is rich in literature. They have their own costumes, jewelry, traditional style. They are found to have embraced different types of language, way of life, culture, values, cultural customs, etc., according to different geographical regions. They are nature worshipers.
They worship many forest spirits and deities, including the forest goddess.
Tharu especially like to live near the forest and by the river. Since they live near the forest, they often do animal husbandry business. And, being on the river bank, they also do fishing. Their main occupation is agriculture. However, most of the community involved in this profession are landless. Therefore, most of the them have to work as Kamaiyas and Kamalharis.
Tharu make their own homemade materials using their own traditional skills. They are interdependent with natural resources. The main festival of this community is Maghi. They consider it as the new year. On this occasion, they choose their chief (barghar). They live in a disciplined manner in the traditional institutional barghar system. They celebrate Maghi as well as various other festivals from time to time.During the festivals, they enjoy a variety of songs, dances, rhythms, and rhythms.
Language They Speak
The Tharu language belongs to the Bharopeli family. the language used by the Tharus living in different districts of the Terai from Mechi to Mahakali. In the census, Their language has been classified into only two groups, namely, Thaura, Dangaura Tharu, Eastern and Western Tharu and Rana another group in Western Nepal
Currently, various newspapers, books and literary works have been published in their language, and radio programs, documentaries and films have been produced. According to the 2068 census, about 15,29,875 people (including Dangaura and Rana ) speak the language. Apart from Nepal, Tharu language is also spoken in India. However, the number of their language speakers is not certain.
Differences in language
This language belongs to the Bharopeli family. the language spoken by them living in different districts of the Terai from Mechi to Mahakali. When the government conducted the census.
It is seen that the Tharu language was classified into only two groups, namely Dangura in Eastern and Western Tharu and Rana in another group in Western Nepal. But according to linguists, there are many differences in their language. Since they live from the far west to the east, it is natural for the language to be diverse.
According to linguistics, every ten dictionaries are differentiated in the same language. According to him, it is natural for the Tharu language to change. Gopal Dahit, who has also edited the Tharu-Nepali-English dictionary, has classified the Tharu language into nine languages. (1) Dangaha (2) Deshauri (3) Rana (4) Saptaria (5) Chitaunia (6) Deukharia (7) Bhowrahiya (8) Nawalpuria (9) Sunsaria (Dahit, 2062).. So Dr. Ganesh Kharal has classified the Tharu language into Eastern, Midwestern and Western only in three main parts (Chaudhary, 2064). A brief introduction of which is given below.
1) Eastern Tharu Language: The dialect spoken in the Eastern Terai of Nepal is the Eastern language. It can also be called ‘Morang Saptaria’. There are three major dialects in this dialect, Morangia, Saptaria and Rajbanshiya.
2) Midwestern Tharu language: Midwestern language is spoken in Chitwan, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat and Nawalparasi districts.There are two major dialects in this dialect, Chitwaniya and Nawalpuria.
3) Western Tharu language: Western dialect is spoken in Dangdeukhuri, Surkhet, Bardia, Banke, Kailali and Kanchanpur districts. It has five divisions namely Dangaura, Deukhuria, Rana, Katharia and Desauri. The main area of Dangaura is Dang Valley. The people who have migrated from here are scattered in Banke, Bardiya, Kailali, Kanchanpur, Surkhet, Rupandehi and Kapilbastu districts. From the point of view of the speaker, Dangaura is in the first place in the Tharu language.
Linguistically speaking, the Tharus, like the Rais, seem to have dozens of different languages.
Number of Tharu speakers:
According to the census of 2068 BS, the population of caste in Nepal is shown as 17,37,470 while the total population of Tharu caste in 2058 BS was 15,33,879 lakhs. This is 6.6 and 5.8 percent of the total population of Nepal respectively. According to the 2068 census, the number of speakers of their language (including Rana ) is 15,29,875 (5.77 percent) and in 2058, there were 13,31,546 (5.86 percent) speakers of their language.
Even in the last census, it is important to note that the population ranks fourth.
Tharu speaking country:
Even in neighboring India, there are millions of Tharu people. But the Indian Tharu’s do not speak the Tharu’s language. The Tharus of West Champaran in densely populated Bihar speak Bhojpuri. The Welfare Assembly has been established in Qatar, while the Tharu Americans have established the Tharu Arand World. But the number of language speakers in other countries has not been ascertained.
Who is Tharu
Where do they live?
How many language they speak?
List of Tharu Dance